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Post-impressionist prints: Paris in the 1890’s

by Ittmann, John W, 1998, Philadelphia, PA : Philadelphia Museum of Art


by Duret, Théodore, 1917, London : G. Richards Ltd. ; Philadelphia : J. B. Lippincott Company

Masterpieces of Impressionism and Post-Impressionism: The Annenberg Collection

by  Bailey, Colin B; Rishel, Joseph J, 1989, New York : Philadelphia Museum of Art in association with Harry N. Abrams


Pierre Auguste Renoir

by Frost, Rosamund, 1944, New York : Pub. by the Hyperion Press : distributed by Duell, Sloan and Pearce






May 2–Oct 14, 2018 Tate Modern, Shape of Light: 100 Years of Photography and Abstract... London

May 4–Jul 22, 2018 Museum Folkwang, Luigi Ghirri: The Map and the Territory, Essen

May 16–Aug 12, 2018 Städel Museum, Frank Auerbach & Lucian Freud, Frankfurt am Main

May 19–Aug 28, 2018 Royal Academy of Arts, Tacita Dean: Landscape, London

May 2 - May 6, 2018

Art New York 2018


May 3 - May 6, 2018

Frieze New York

May 4 - May 6, 2018

1:54 Contemporary African Art Fair | New York

Miss Read: Berlin Art Book Fair

May 10 - May 13, 2018

Affordable Art Fair | Hampstead, London

May 17 - May 20, 2018


Photo London 2018

May 18 - May 20, 2018

Affordable Art Fair | Hong Kong

May 24 - May 27, 2018





First Impressions

In the 1860s increasing numbers of artists, influenced by the Barbizon School, took their paints and canvases out into the French countyside. Painters including the Dutchman Jongkind and Boudin from Honfleur set up their easels on the popular beaches of Normandy. The slightest hint of a brushstroke and confluences of colours created atmospheric impressions. Boudin varied his beach scenes with distinct moods arising from the morning or evening sun. Above all, the ever -changings effects of light and colour on the water became a challenge that was eagerly met. Boudin’s student Monet titled an 1874 view of the harbour at Le Haver Impression, Sunrise. Henceforth, one critic began to mock the group of artists with whim Monet exhibited - and who , like Monet , were excluded from the Salon – as “impressionists.” While the painters who were part of the Salon judged a picture’s value by its motif, for the Impressionists , the picture’s colours and their relationship to each other were of supreme importance .The colour of objects can thus lose significance and fall victim to the general atmospheric impression. The application of colour in recognizable brushstroke shatters the outlines of objects, allowing them to melt into their surroundings, as if illuminated by a shimmering light. Shadows are no linger simpy darkness, but rather patches of blended colour.


Claude Monet , Impression, Soleil Levant, 1872, Oil on canvas , 48 × 63 cm, Musée Marmottan Monet