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Synthetism (1889-1893)

 

OVERVIEW / HISTORY / CHRONOLOGY / EXHIBITIONS / ARTISTS / GALLERY / BIBLIOGRAPHY / BOOKS / MORE
   
OVERVIEW

Synthetisme was the term used by artists who were close to Gauguin at Pont-Aven during 1886-1890: a painting was meant to synthesize the artist’s impressions and memories. During the Universal Exposition of 1889, an exhibition of Synthetisme was held and a Groupe Synthetiste was formed in 1891.

 

   
HISTORY

Synthetism Artistic movement consummating the break with Impressionism. Rotonchamp, Gauguin's first biographer, defined" synthesis" as: " An intentional simplification of line, forms and colours in order to give maximum expressive intensity by suppressing everything capable of lessening the impact." Thus the break with Impressionism was effected with a thoroughness which both Cezanne and Seurat had tried to avoid, preferring to betray Impressionism by extrapolation. Synthetism, on the contrary, inverts therelationship between painting and reality: the painter uses nature, rather than obeying it. To what end? To what is Rotonchamp referring when he talks of " maximum intensity"?

Here the Symbolist viewpoint, much more explicitly defined by that speculative soul Emile Bernard, admittedly influenced by his friend Aurier, than it ever was by Gauguin, intervenes: nature was not to be used for confessional purposes; instead its quintessence was to be distilled through the power of the artist's imagination. Hence Bernard wrote: "Because an idea consists of things collected by the imagination, a painter should not paint the object in front of him, but should seek to recapture it in the mental image he has collectedfor the memory does not retain everything, only what is striking. So, colours and shapes become uniformly simplified. By painting from memory, I have the advantage of abolishing the useless complexity of form and tone. Each line resumes its geometrical and architectural value, each colour its prismatic colour category." Here were the beginnings of decorative art and pure colour fifteen years before Fauvism.

Nevertheless, the Synthetism of 1888 had a philosophical background-a brand of visionary Platonism - which dictated its individuality of style. As Aurier stated towards the end of an important article devoted to Gauguin -almost a manifesto of the new trend in art: " A work of art ought logically to be (a) idealistic, because its sole aim is the expression of the idea; (b) symbolic, because it expresses this idea in forms; (c) synthetic, because it traces these forms according to generally understood signs; (d) subjective, because the object is never treated as a plain object but as the manifestation of an idea perceived by the subject; and (e) decorative, for truly decorative art, as the Egyptians understood it, is neither more nor less than a subjective, synthetic, symbolic and ideal manifestation of art."

In fact the Synthetists never took the amazing liberties with the exterior world that the early 20thcentury painters permitted themselves, precisely because that world, for those able to see and transpose it, already contained the ideal. It was necessary to abstract the idea from the exterior world and simplify it-for, as Bernard put it: "Anything superfluous in a scene veils that scene with a reality which claims our visual attention, rather than our soul"and therefore summarise it in its own sense and according to its own harmonious reality, in a word to stylise it, or, as Gauguin said, distil an "abstraction" from it. With Gauguin, therefore, the plastic never took sole command, but was always linked to the emotive significance of the scene represented. In return this significance could transform a representation and complete it by adding new symbolic elements: hence Gauguin's Lutte de Jacob avec L'Ange depicts, in one sweep, the Breton woman coming out of Mass as well as the vision they have before them of an episode narrated in the sermon they have just heard.

 

   
CHRONOLOGY

1880

Durand-Ruel resumes buying paintings from Sisley and Pissarro. Exhibitions: April 5th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon; April LaVie moderne offices, Manet; June LaVie moderne offices, Monet.

1881

Durand-Ruel resumes buying paintings from Renoir and Monet. Exhibitions: April 6th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon (new organised, under the control of the artists); LaVie moderne offices, Sisley; June LaVie moderne offices, Redon.

1882

Exhibitions: march 7th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon, May LaVie moderne offices, Redon.

1883

April Death of Manet. Exhibitions: Durand-Ruel, series of one-man shows: Boudin (Feb.), Monet (March), Renoir (April), C. Pissarro (May); May outwards Salon, Sept. outwards Exposition Nationale.

1884

Exhibitions: Jan. Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Manet (retrospective); 4-5 Feb. Manet studio sale; May outwards Salon; May-July Salon des Artistes Independants; Dec. Societe des Artistes Independants, 1st exh.

1885

Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May-June G. Petit, 4th Exposition Internationale.

1886

March, Van Gogh arrives in Paris. Gauguin visits Brittany for first time. Death of Monticelli. First Neo-Impressionists paintings shown  at 8th and last Impressionist exhibition. Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May-June 8th impressionists group,  June-July 5th Exposition Internationale; Aug.-Sept. Independants.

1887

Gauguin lives in Martinique. Exhibitions: Feb.-March Le Tambourin café, Japanese prints, organised be Vincent van Gogh. March-May Independants; May outwards Salon; May-June 6th Exposition Internationale; spring (?) Le Tambourin café, Dec.-Jan. 1888 Revue independante.

1888

Van Gogh leaves Paris for Arles. Gauguin joined be Bernard at Pont-Aven in Brittany. Oct., Gauguin joins Van Gogh in Arles.  1888-9, by Serusier, Denis, Bonnard, Ranson, joined 1889 by Vuillard and Roussel. Exhibitions: Jan. Boussod&Valadon (Theo van Gogh); Durand-Ruel, exh. Inc. Degas;  March-May Independants; April Boussod&Valadon (Theo van Gogh); Sept.-Oct. Revue independante offices Dubois-Pillet.

1889

Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May outwards Exposition Universelle; June-July G.Petit, Monet-Rodin (retrospective), Sept.-Oct. Independants;

1890

Death of Vincent van Gogh, Exhibitions: March-May Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards 1st exh. of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts (founded as alternative to the Salon des Artistes Francais, with Meissonier as President, Puvis de Chavannes as Vice-President; often known as the Salon du Champ de Mars).

1891

Deaths of Theo van Gogh and SeuratGauguin leaves for Tahiti. Exhibitions: March-April Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 1st Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1892

Exhibitions: Feb. Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Monet; March-April Independants; May Le Barc de Boutteville, 2nd Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 3rd Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; 

1893

Death of Pere Tanguy. Vollard opens gallery in rue Laffitte Gauguin is back from Tahiti. Exhibitions: March-April Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May (?)Le Barc de Boutteville, 4th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Nov.  Durand-Ruel, GauguinCassatt, Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 5th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1894

Exhibitions: Jan. –Feb. Durand-Ruel, Guillaumin; March Durand-Ruel, Pissarro; March. Le Barc de Boutteville, 6th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; March-April Durand-Ruel, Redon, April-May Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Toulouse-Lautrec, Manet, Caillebotte (retrospective), July Le Barc de Boutteville, 7th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 8th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1895

Exhibitions: April-May Independants; April-May Le Barc de Boutteville, 9th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Monet; Sept. Le Barc de Boutteville, 10th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Dec.-Jan. 1896 Bing. Salon de l’Art Nouveau.

1896

Exhibitions: Jan. Durand-Ruel, Bonnard, Guillaumin, Morisot (retrospective); c. March. Le Barc de Boutteville, 11th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; April-May Independants; April-May Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Renoir; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Summer Le Barc de Boutteville, 12th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Sept. Durand-Ruel, Puvis de Chavannes; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 13th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1897

Exhibitions: April-May Independants; April outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; April outwards Societe Nationale; June-July Le Barc de Boutteville, 14th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 15th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1898

Exhibitions: Feb.-March Durand-Ruel, Zandomeneghi; April Durand-Ruel, Guillaumin; April-June Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May Durand-Ruel, Moret; June Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro.

1899

Exhibitions: April Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May-June Durand-Ruel , Jongkind (retrospective); June-July Durand-Ruel, Puvis de Chavannes; Oct.-Nov. Durand-Ruel, Luce; Oct.-Nov. Independants.

1900

Picasso first visits Paris.  Exhibitions: April Durand-Ruel , Redon; April outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; April-Oct. Exposition Universelle; Nov.-Dec. Durand-Ruel, Monet; Dec. . Independants.

1901

Death of Toulouse-Lautrec. Exhibitions: Jan. Feb. Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro; March Societe Nouvelle; April Durand-Ruel, Valtat; April-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Moret.

1902

Exhibitions: Match-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Toulouse-Lautrec. June Durand-Ruel, Renoir, Roussel.

1903

Death of Gauguin in Marquesas Island and of Camille Pissarro. Exhibitions: March Durand-Ruel, Redon;  Match-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Dec.  Salon d’Automne (1st exh.), Nov. Durand-Ruel,  Zandomeneghi.

1904

Bernard visits Cezanne at Aix. Exhibitions: Feb-March Durand-Ruel, Moret, Feb.-March Independants; April Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1905

Exhibitions: March-April Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1906

Denis and Roussel visit Cezanne at Aix. Death of Cezanne and Carriere. Exhibitions: Feb.-March Durand-Ruel, Redon, Manet, Monet; March-April Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais;  Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne .

1907

Exhibitions: March-April Independants; April Durand-Ruel,, Moret; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1908

Exhibitions: March-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

 

   
EXHIBITIONS

1883

Oct., Les XX founded in Brussels by O. Maus and 20 Belgian artists.

1884

Brussels, Feb.-March 1st Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe; (invitees): Chase, Gervex, Heymans, J.Israela, Maris, Mauve.

1885

Brussels, Feb.-March 2nd Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels; (invitees): Cazin, Fantin-Latour, Mellery, Mesdag, Raffaëlli, Uhde.

1886

Brussels, Feb.-March 3rd Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Vogels; (invitees) Besnard, Breither, Degas (but refused to send), Monet, Monticelli, Redon, Renoir, Whistler, Zandomeneghi.

1887

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Luce, Maurin, L. Pissarro, Redon, Henry Rousseau, SeuratSignac.

Brussels, Feb.-March 4th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels;(invitees) Cazin, C. Pissarro, Raffaëlli, Rodin, Seurat, Sickert.

1888

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Van Gogh, Luce, Maurin, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Seurat, Signac.

Brussels, Feb.-March 5th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels;(invitees) : Anquetin, Blanche, Burne-jones (but refused to send), Degas (but refused to send), Dubois-Pillet, Forain, Guillaumin, Helleu, Mellery, Signac, Whistler.

1889

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard,Carriere, Cazin, Dagnan-Bouveret, Fantin-Latour, Guillou, La Touche, Maignan, Martin, Maurin, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Tissot.

Sept.-Oct. Idependants, inc.: Anquetin, Dubois-Pillet, Filiger, Van Gogh, Hayet, Luce, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, SeuratSignacToulouse-Lautrec.

Brussels, Feb.-March 6th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Lemmen, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) : Besnard, Cross, Gauguin, Klinger, Luce, Monet, C. PissarroSignac, Steer, W.Stott.

1890

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Boch Anna, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Filiger, Finch, Van Gogh, Guillaumin, Luce, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, SeuratSignacToulouse-Lautrec, Van de Velde.

Brussels, Feb.-March 7th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde, Vogels; (invitees) : Cezanne, Dubois-Pillet, Van Gogh, Hayet, Mellery, L. Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Segantini, Signac, Sisley, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1891

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Harrison, Hodler, La Touche, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Whistler.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 1st. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Bernard, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Filiger, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Luce, Manet, Ranson, Roussel, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec, Vuillard.

Brussels, Feb.-March 8th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) :Angrand, Chéret, Grane, Filiger, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Guillaumin, C. PissarroSeurat, Steer, Verster.

1892

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bernard, Bonnard, Boch Anna, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Ranson, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Seurat (retrospective), Signac, Toorop, Toulouse-Lautrec.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lhermitte, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Whistler.

May, Le Barc de Boutteville, 2nd. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Bernard, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Luce, C. Pissarro, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 3nd. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Cross, Denis, Gauguin, C. Pissarro, Roussel, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec.

Brussels, Feb.-March 9th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Signac, Toorop, Van de Velde, Vogels; (invitees) : Besnard, Cassatt, Denis, Horne, Image, Luce, Mellery, L.Pissarro, SeuratToulouse-Lautrec.

1893

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Ranson, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Signac, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Valtat.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Blanche, Carriere, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Rothenstein, Simon, Tissot.

May (?) Le Barc de Boutteville, 4th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Guillaumin, C. Pissarro, Roussel, Serusier, Signac, Toorop, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Vuillard.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 5th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Conder, Cottet, Denis, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Lacombe, Luce, Moret, Ranson, Roussel, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vuillard.

Brussels, Feb.-March 10th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Signac, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) : Bernard, Besnard, Cross, Madox Brown, Steer, Thorn Prikker, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1894

March Le Barc de Boutteville, 6th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Bonnard, Conder, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Hayet, Lacombe, O'Conor, Ranson, Seguin, Serusier, Vuillard.

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Signac, Toulouse-Lautrec, Valtat.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes,Roll, Sargent, Simon, Tissot, Whistler.

July Le Barc de Boutteville, 7th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Conder, Denis, Guillaumin, Hayet, Moret, O'Conor, Toulouse-Lautrec.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 8th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Forbes-Robertson, Guillaumin, Hayet, Lacombe, Maurin, Moret, O'Conor, Seguin, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1895

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Cross, Forbes-Robertson, Lacombe, Luce, Moret, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec.

April-May, Le Barc de Boutteville, 9th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Denis, Forbes-Robertson, Hayet, Moret, Ranson, Serusier.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes,Roll, Simon, W. Stott.

Sept. Le Barc de Boutteville, 10th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Forbes-Robertson, Hayet, Maillol, O'Conor, Seguin.

1896

March, Le Barc de Boutteville, 11th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Denis, Lacombe, Maillol, Serusier.

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Munch, Rousseau, Signac, Valtat.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Blanche, Boldini, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Liebermann, Matisse, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Simon, W. Stott.

Summer, Le Barc de Boutteville, 12th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Denis, Guillaumin, Roussel.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 13th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Roussel.

1897

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Munch, Rousseau, SignacToulouse-Lautrec, Valtat.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Matisse, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon, W. Stott, Whistler.

June-July, Le Barc de Boutteville, 14th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 15th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Toulouse-Lautrec.

1898

April-June, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Rousseau, Signac.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Levy-Dhurmer, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Sargent, Simon.

1899

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Matisse, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon, W. Stott.

Oct.-Nov. Idependants, inc.: Cezanne, Cross, Luce, Signac.

1900

April-Oct. Exposition Universelle. Exposition centennale de i'art francais, 1800-1889,inc.: Bastien-Lepage, Beraud, Besnard, Boudin, Carriere, Cazin, Cezanne, Degas, Fantin-Latour, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Maignan, Manet, Maurin, Monet, Monticelli, Moreau, Morisot, C. Pissarro, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Renoir, Roll, Seurat, Sisley, Vallotton, 

Exposition decennale des Beaux-Arts, 1889-1900, inc.: Adler, Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, chabes, Cheret, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Guillou, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Levy-Dhurmer, Maignan, Martin, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon. German section inc.: Klackreuth, Liebermann, Slevogt, Von Stuck. Austrian section inc.: Klimt, Kupka. Belgian section inc.: Claus, Ensor, Evenepoel, Khnopff, Vogels. Dutch section inc.:Toorop. American section inc.: Harrison, Sargent, Whistler. British section inc.: Clausen, Stanhope, La Thangue, Lavery, Melville, Osborne, Rothenstein, E. Stott. Italian section inc.: Boldini, Morbelli, Pellizza, Segantini. Swiss section inc.: Amiet, Hodler.

Dec. Idependants, inc.: Luce, Puy, Schuffenecker, Signac.

1901

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Boch Anna, Bonnard, Cezanne, Cross, Denis, Ensor, Lacombe, Luce, Matisse, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Sigmac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Simon

1902

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Bernard, Bonnard, Cezanne, Cross, Denis, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, SignacToulouse-Lautrec (retrospective), Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Harrison, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Sickert, Simon, Whistler.

1903

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Denis, Dufy, Forain, Friesz, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Bonnard, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Maillol, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Sickert, Simon, Vallotton.

Oct.-Dec. Salon d'Automne (1st exh.), inc.: Adler, Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Bonnard, Carriere, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Harrison, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Rouault, Von Stuck, Vallotton, Vuillard.

1904

Feb.-March, Idependants, inc.: Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Signac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Bakst, Beraud, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Rouault, Sargent, Simon, Whistler.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Adler, Bonnard, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Delaunay, Denis, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Lavery, Liebermann, Maillol, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Puvis de Chavannes, Redon, Renoir, Rouault, Roussel, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Valtat, Van Dongen, Vuillard, Zandomeneghi.

1905

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bernard, Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Van Gogh, Herrmann, Kollwitz, Lacombe, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Serusier, Seurat, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

April, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Besnard, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Guthrie, Harrison, Henry, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bonnard, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Derain, Van Dongen, Duchamp-Villon, Friesz, Guillaumin, Ingres, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Lavery, Maillol, Manet, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Picabia, l. Pissarro, Raffaëlli, Redon, Renoir, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

1906

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bernard, Bonnard, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Herrmann, Lacombe, Leger, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

April onwards, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud,Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bonnard, Brancusi, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Delaunay, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Kupka, Lavery, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Redon, Renoir, Rossi, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard; plus exh. of Russian art, organized by Diaghilev.

1907

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Derain, Dufy, Gilman, Gore, Herrmann, Kandinsky, Luce, Matisse, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Signac, Vallotton, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Claus, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bakst, Bonnard, Braque, Camoin, Cezanne, Delaunay, Derain, Dufy, Fergusson, Friesz, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Kupka, Lavery, Leger, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, Redon, Rouault, Rousseau, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck; plus belgian exh. inc.: Claus, ensor, Evenelopoel, Finch, Khnopff, Mellery, Rops, Rysselberghe.

1908

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Derain, Finch, Gilman, Gore, Kandinsky, Luce, Munch, O'Conor, Rousseau, Roussel, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Vlaminck.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Blanche, Claus, Cottet, Dauchez, Denis, Fergusson, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bakst, Bonnard, Camoin, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Duchamp, Fergusson, Friesz, El Greco, Kandinsky, Lavery, Leger, Marquet, Matisse, Monticelli, Moret, O'Conor, Ranson, Rouault, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard, Vlaminck.

Later Exhibitions

29 September 2013 - 6 January 2014 Peggy Guggenheim Collection, THE AVANT-GARDES OF FIN-DE-SIÈCLE PARIS: SIGNAC, BONNARD, REDON, AND THEIR CONTEMPORARIES

16 September 2016 - 8 January 2017 Albertina, Vienna, Seurat, Signac, Van Gogh. Ways of Pointilism.

11 August 2017– 11 March 2018 Kunstmuseum Bern, VAN GOGH TO CÉZANNE, BONNARD TO MATISSE THE COLLECTION HAHNLOSER

 

   
ARTISTS

Bonnard, Pierre

Bonnard, a “drop-out” law student, was a typical Parisian and also very attached to his background; but his affection for it filtered through an attentive sort of malice. He was more attracted by domestic scenes that by quaint interiors, and perhaps even more fascinated by street scenes and Parisian life. Of all the Nabis, Bonnard was supposedly the most influenced by the Japanese style. His palette is typical of Nabist asceticism and exults in dark greys and maroons. The majority of Bonnard’s work during his Nabist period consists of sketches, posters and lithographs whose minimal outlines freely reflect the artist’ lively vagaries. During the period from 1898 to 1912 Bonnard developed a liking for Degas and the Impressionism, and executed a series of nudes, landscapes and still-life studies. However, he never prided himself on realistically and exclusively analysing the quality of life. He must have realised that this technique had its limitations, for from 1912 to 1921 he gave more serious attention to form and consequently devoted more time to drawing, where his supple outlines give fluidity rather that immobility to form. Bonnard was the only Nabi capable of continuous evolution. In occasionally referring back to his precursors he was only looking for an answering echo to his own problems and also for the stimulus to surmount them.

Gauguin, Paul

Gauguin, the son of a French father and Creole mother, began painting in the early 1870s while working as a stockbroker. In 1883 he became a full-time artist. He was a friend of Pissarro and exhibited in the last four Impressionist exhibitions, but his painting did not bring financial success. In 1886 he left his family and moved to Pont Aven in Brittany. There he assembled a group of followers called the “Pont-Aven School.” In 1888, the shared a studio with van Gogh until their friendship came to a bloody end. Gauguin moved to Tahiti in 1891, where he believed he became one with nature, a feeling reflected in his later works, which is influenced by the art of primitive peoples. When he first sailed to Tahiti , he had put more than just a large geographic distance between himself and France. Since 1880s, when he first exhibited with the Impressionists, he had undertaken a step-by-step reworking of his opinions about light, colour and form. He reacted to the increasingly scientific theories of the Impressionists and their followers (especially the pointillists) with an emphatic turn to the “primitive”. He achieved this by abandoning perspective , sculptural modelling and conventional colouring. On the island of Tahiti, discovered 125 years previously, hardly anything of the indigenous culture and way of life had survived French colonial domination. Many of the pictures executed be Gauguin in the South Pacific hearken back to a lost harmony between man and nature. Gauguin could only realise his dream of a primitive life with the help of an artistic device: the lining up of figures with few overlaps, the juxtaposition of frontal and profile views, the immobile faces and “talking” hands of the women all recollect Egyptian and Javanese art. By superimposing the forms of a seemingly foreign and mysterious culture on the sober and mundane reality of the island, he was able to give expression to his exotic, primitive vision. He created for the viewer (and for himself) a simulated world full of mystery and wonder.

Laval, Charles

French painter born in Paris, died in Cairo. Ge was Gauguin’s companion on his voyage to panama and  Martinique in 1888. He belonged to the Le Pouldu group and to the first generation of Symbolist painters (Gauguin, Bernard, Anquetin). Two of his works, Landscape and Portrait of the Artist (1889) , hang in the Musee d’art moderne in Paris.

Sérusier, Paul

Serusier had acted ad interpreter of Gauguin. It is therefore logical to suppose that of all the Nabis Serusier‘s work should be the most indebted to the master of Pont-Aven. He conscientiously applied himself to Cloisonnism, working with smooth layers of paint. He was even captivated, like Gauguin, with Brittany, the source of his favourite themes. He treated landscapes (The Sea at Le Pouldu), scenes from folklore (The Pardon) and imaginary scenes borrowed from literary Symbolism. Yet in temperament Serusier was completely different frim Gauguin, with none of his robustness or powerful gift for synthesis; he showed instead a certain slackness of line and a disregard for the vigorous effects of foreshortening. As a colourist , too , Serusier was less bold , although he had both taste and originality. He was a true Nabi in that he always attenuated, at almost extinguished, his effects. What, in fact, fundamentally distinguishes him frim Gauguin in his personal outlook on the world. Both were attracted to the archaic and primitive, but in Gauguin’s case archaism was a dimension immediately transmitted to him by the Landscape he was handling: his painting somehow served as a means of penetrating the powerful truth he discovered in a landscape. In Serusier’s case , however, archaism was more a lingering scent of “once upon a time” which he enjoyed imagining and transferring on to canvas. His painting recalls the melancholy atmosphere of eternally sunken legends.

 

   
GALLERY
 
  Paul Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon, 1888, National Galleries of Scotland
   
 
  Charles Laval, Going to Market, Brittany, 1888, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana
   
 
  Emile Bernard, Breton Women in the Meadow, August 1888, Private collection
   
 
  Paul Sérusier, The Talisman (with the forest landscape of love in Pont-Aven) , 1888, Musée d'Orsay
   
   
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Art: Architecture, Painting, Sculpture, Graphics, Techniques, Bath, 2011.

Essential History of Art, Bath , 2001.

Jalard, Michel-Claude: Post-Impressionism, Paris, 1966.

Shone, Richard: The Post-Impressionism, London, 1979.

 

 
BOOKS

Section POST- IMPRESSIONISM in LIBRARY

 

 
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