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Synthetism (1889-1893)

 

OVERVIEW / HISTORY / CHRONOLOGY / EXHIBITIONS / ARTISTS / GALLERY / BIBLIOGRAPHY / BOOKS / MORE
   
OVERVIEW

Synthetism Artistic movement consummating the break with Impressionism. Rotonchamp, Gauguin's first biographer, defined" synthesis" as: " An intentional simplification of line, forms and colours in order to give maximum expressive intensity by suppressing everything capable of lessening the impact." Thus the break with Impressionism was effected with a thoroughness which both Cezanne and Seurat had tried to avoid, preferring to betray Impressionism by extrapolation. Synthetism, on the contrary, inverts therelationship between painting and reality: the painter uses nature, rather than obeying it. To what end? To what is Rotonchamp referring when he talks of " maximum intensity"? Here the Symbolist viewpoint, much more explicitly defined by that speculative soul Emile Bernard, admittedly influenced by his friend Aurier, than it ever was by Gauguin, intervenes: nature was not to be used for confessional purposes; instead its quintessence was to be distilled through the power of the artist's imagination. Hence Bernard wrote: "Because an idea consists of things collected by the imagination, a painter should not paint the object in front of him, but should seek to recapture it in the mental image he has collectedfor the memory does not retain everything, only what is striking. So, colours and shapes become uniformly simplified. By painting from memory, I have the advantage of abolishing the useless complexity of form and tone. Each line resumes its geometrical and architectural value, each colour its prismatic colour category." Here were the beginnings of decorative art and pure colour fifteen years before Fauvism. Nevertheless, the Synthetism of 1888 had a philosophical background-a brand of visionary Platonism - which dictated its individuality of style. As Aurier stated towards the end of an important article devoted to Gauguin -almost a manifesto of the new trend in art: " A work of art ought logically to be (a) idealistic, because its sole aim is the expression of the idea; (b) symbolic, because it expresses this idea in forms; (c) synthetic, because it traces these forms according to generally understood signs; (d) subjective, because the object is never treated as a plain object but as the manifestation of an idea perceived by the subject; and (e) decorative, for truly decorative art, as the Egyptians understood it, is neither more nor less than a subjective, synthetic, symbolic and ideal manifestation of art." In fact the Synthetists never took the amazing liberties with the exterior world that the early 20thcentury painters permitted themselves, precisely because that world, for those able to see and transpose it, already contained the ideal. It was necessary to abstract the idea from the exterior world and simplify it-for, as Bernard put it: "Anything superfluous in a scene veils that scene with a reality which claims our visual attention, rather than our soul"and therefore summarise it in its own sense and according to its own harmonious reality, in a word to stylise it, or, as Gauguin said, distil an "abstraction" from it. With Gauguin, therefore, the plastic never took sole command, but was always linked to the emotive significance of the scene represented. In return this significance could transform a representation and complete it by adding new symbolic elements: hence Gauguin's Lutte de Jacob avec L'Ange depicts, in one sweep, the Breton woman coming out of Mass as well as the vision they have before them of an episode narrated in the sermon they have just heard.

 

   
HISTORY

 

   
CHRONOLOGY

1880

Durand-Ruel resumes buying paintings from Sisley and Pissarro. Exhibitions: April 5th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon; April LaVie moderne offices, Manet; June LaVie moderne offices, Monet.

1881

Durand-Ruel resumes buying paintings from Renoir and Monet. Exhibitions: April 6th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon (new organised, under the control of the artists); LaVie moderne offices, Sisley; June LaVie moderne offices, Redon.

1882

Exhibitions: march 7th Impressionists group; May outwards Salon, May LaVie moderne offices, Redon.

1883

April Death of Manet. Exhibitions: Durand-Ruel, series of one-man shows: Boudin (Feb.), Monet (March), Renoir (April), C. Pissarro (May); May outwards Salon, Sept. outwards Exposition Nationale.

1884

Exhibitions: Jan. Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Manet (retrospective); 4-5 Feb. Manet studio sale; May outwards Salon; May-July Salon des Artistes Independants; Dec. Societe des Artistes Independants, 1st exh.

1885

Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May-June G. Petit, 4th Exposition Internationale.

1886

March, Van Gogh arrives in Paris. Gauguin visits Brittany for first time. Death of Monticelli. First Neo-Impressionists paintings shown  at 8th and last Impressionist exhibition. Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May-June 8th impressionists group,  June-July 5th Exposition Internationale; Aug.-Sept. Independants.

1887

Gauguin lives in Martinique. Exhibitions: Feb.-March Le Tambourin café, Japanese prints, organised be Vincent van Gogh. March-May Independants; May outwards Salon; May-June 6th Exposition Internationale; spring (?) Le Tambourin café, Dec.-Jan. 1888 Revue independante.

1888

Van Gogh leaves Paris for Arles. Gauguin joined be Bernard at Pont-Aven in Brittany. Oct., Gauguin joins Van Gogh in Arles.  1888-9, by Serusier, Denis, Bonnard, Ranson, joined 1889 by Vuillard and Roussel. Exhibitions: Jan. Boussod&Valadon (Theo van Gogh); Durand-Ruel, exh. Inc. Degas;  March-May Independants; April Boussod&Valadon (Theo van Gogh); Sept.-Oct. Revue independante offices Dubois-Pillet.

1889

Exhibitions: May outwards Salon; May outwards Exposition Universelle; June-July G.Petit, Monet-Rodin (retrospective), Sept.-Oct. Independants;

1890

Death of Vincent van Gogh, Exhibitions: March-May Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards 1st exh. of the Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts (founded as alternative to the Salon des Artistes Francais, with Meissonier as President, Puvis de Chavannes as Vice-President; often known as the Salon du Champ de Mars).

1891

Deaths of Theo van Gogh and SeuratGauguin leaves for Tahiti. Exhibitions: March-April Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 1st Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1892

Exhibitions: Feb. Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Monet; March-April Independants; May Le Barc de Boutteville, 2nd Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 3rd Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; 

1893

Death of Pere Tanguy. Vollard opens gallery in rue Laffitte Gauguin is back from Tahiti. Exhibitions: March-April Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May (?)Le Barc de Boutteville, 4th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Nov.  Durand-Ruel, GauguinCassatt, Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 5th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1894

Exhibitions: Jan. –Feb. Durand-Ruel, Guillaumin; March Durand-Ruel, Pissarro; March. Le Barc de Boutteville, 6th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; March-April Durand-Ruel, Redon, April-May Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Toulouse-Lautrec, Manet, Caillebotte (retrospective), July Le Barc de Boutteville, 7th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 8th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1895

Exhibitions: April-May Independants; April-May Le Barc de Boutteville, 9th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Monet; Sept. Le Barc de Boutteville, 10th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Dec.-Jan. 1896 Bing. Salon de l’Art Nouveau.

1896

Exhibitions: Jan. Durand-Ruel, Bonnard, Guillaumin, Morisot (retrospective); c. March. Le Barc de Boutteville, 11th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; April-May Independants; April-May Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Renoir; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Summer Le Barc de Boutteville, 12th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Sept. Durand-Ruel, Puvis de Chavannes; Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 13th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1897

Exhibitions: April-May Independants; April outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; April outwards Societe Nationale; June-July Le Barc de Boutteville, 14th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes; Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 15th Exposition des Peintres Impressionnistes et Symbolistes.

1898

Exhibitions: Feb.-March Durand-Ruel, Zandomeneghi; April Durand-Ruel, Guillaumin; April-June Independants; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May Durand-Ruel, Moret; June Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro.

1899

Exhibitions: April Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May outwards Societe Nationale; May-June Durand-Ruel , Jongkind (retrospective); June-July Durand-Ruel, Puvis de Chavannes; Oct.-Nov. Durand-Ruel, Luce; Oct.-Nov. Independants.

1900

Picasso first visits Paris.  Exhibitions: April Durand-Ruel , Redon; April outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; April-Oct. Exposition Universelle; Nov.-Dec. Durand-Ruel, Monet; Dec. . Independants.

1901

Death of Toulouse-Lautrec. Exhibitions: Jan. Feb. Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro; March Societe Nouvelle; April Durand-Ruel, Valtat; April-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Moret.

1902

Exhibitions: Match-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; May Durand-Ruel, Toulouse-Lautrec. June Durand-Ruel, Renoir, Roussel.

1903

Death of Gauguin in Marquesas Island and of Camille Pissarro. Exhibitions: March Durand-Ruel, Redon;  Match-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Dec.  Salon d’Automne (1st exh.), Nov. Durand-Ruel,  Zandomeneghi.

1904

Bernard visits Cezanne at Aix. Exhibitions: Feb-March Durand-Ruel, Moret, Feb.-March Independants; April Durand-Ruel, C. Pissarro; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1905

Exhibitions: March-April Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1906

Denis and Roussel visit Cezanne at Aix. Death of Cezanne and Carriere. Exhibitions: Feb.-March Durand-Ruel, Redon, Manet, Monet; March-April Independants; April outwards Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais;  Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne .

1907

Exhibitions: March-April Independants; April Durand-Ruel,, Moret; April-June Societe Nationale; May outwards Salon des Artistes Francais; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

1908

Exhibitions: March-May Independants; April-June Societe Nationale; Oct.-Nov.  Salon d’Automne.

 

   
EXHIBITIONS

1883

Oct., Les XX founded in Brussels by O. Maus and 20 Belgian artists.

1884

Brussels, Feb.-March 1st Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe; (invitees): Chase, Gervex, Heymans, J.Israela, Maris, Mauve.

1885

Brussels, Feb.-March 2nd Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels; (invitees): Cazin, Fantin-Latour, Mellery, Mesdag, Raffaëlli, Uhde.

1886

Brussels, Feb.-March 3rd Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Vogels; (invitees) Besnard, Breither, Degas (but refused to send), Monet, Monticelli, Redon, Renoir, Whistler, Zandomeneghi.

1887

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Luce, Maurin, L. Pissarro, Redon, Henry Rousseau, SeuratSignac.

Brussels, Feb.-March 4th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels;(invitees) Cazin, C. Pissarro, Raffaëlli, Rodin, Seurat, Sickert.

1888

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Van Gogh, Luce, Maurin, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Seurat, Signac.

Brussels, Feb.-March 5th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Vogels;(invitees) : Anquetin, Blanche, Burne-jones (but refused to send), Degas (but refused to send), Dubois-Pillet, Forain, Guillaumin, Helleu, Mellery, Signac, Whistler.

1889

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard,Carriere, Cazin, Dagnan-Bouveret, Fantin-Latour, Guillou, La Touche, Maignan, Martin, Maurin, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Tissot.

Sept.-Oct. Idependants, inc.: Anquetin, Dubois-Pillet, Filiger, Van Gogh, Hayet, Luce, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, SeuratSignacToulouse-Lautrec.

Brussels, Feb.-March 6th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Lemmen, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) : Besnard, Cross, Gauguin, Klinger, Luce, Monet, C. PissarroSignac, Steer, W.Stott.

1890

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Boch Anna, Cross, Dubois-Pillet, Filiger, Finch, Van Gogh, Guillaumin, Luce, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, SeuratSignacToulouse-Lautrec, Van de Velde.

Brussels, Feb.-March 7th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde, Vogels; (invitees) : Cezanne, Dubois-Pillet, Van Gogh, Hayet, Mellery, L. Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Segantini, Signac, Sisley, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1891

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Harrison, Hodler, La Touche, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Whistler.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 1st. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Bernard, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Filiger, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Luce, Manet, Ranson, Roussel, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec, Vuillard.

Brussels, Feb.-March 8th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) :Angrand, Chéret, Grane, Filiger, Gauguin, Van Gogh, Guillaumin, C. PissarroSeurat, Steer, Verster.

1892

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bernard, Bonnard, Boch Anna, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Ranson, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Seurat (retrospective), Signac, Toorop, Toulouse-Lautrec.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lhermitte, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Whistler.

May, Le Barc de Boutteville, 2nd. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Bernard, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Luce, C. Pissarro, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 3nd. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Cross, Denis, Gauguin, C. Pissarro, Roussel, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec.

Brussels, Feb.-March 9th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Signac, Toorop, Van de Velde, Vogels; (invitees) : Besnard, Cassatt, Denis, Horne, Image, Luce, Mellery, L.Pissarro, SeuratToulouse-Lautrec.

1893

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, O'Conor, L. Pissarro, Ranson, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Signac, Steinlen, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Valtat.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Blanche, Carriere, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Cross, Dagnan-Bouveret, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Rothenstein, Simon, Tissot.

May (?) Le Barc de Boutteville, 4th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Guillaumin, C. Pissarro, Roussel, Serusier, Signac, Toorop, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Vuillard.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 5th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Conder, Cottet, Denis, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Lacombe, Luce, Moret, Ranson, Roussel, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vuillard.

Brussels, Feb.-March 10th Les XX, inc.: (members) Ensor, Finch, Knopff, Rodin, Rysselberghe, Signac, Toorop, Van de Velde; (invitees) : Bernard, Besnard, Cross, Madox Brown, Steer, Thorn Prikker, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1894

March Le Barc de Boutteville, 6th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Bonnard, Conder, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Hayet, Lacombe, O'Conor, Ranson, Seguin, Serusier, Vuillard.

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Cross, Denis, Luce, Moret, L. Pissarro, Rousseau, Signac, Toulouse-Lautrec, Valtat.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes,Roll, Sargent, Simon, Tissot, Whistler.

July Le Barc de Boutteville, 7th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Conder, Denis, Guillaumin, Hayet, Moret, O'Conor, Toulouse-Lautrec.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 8th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Bonnard, Chéret, Cottet, Denis, Filiger, Forbes-Robertson, Guillaumin, Hayet, Lacombe, Maurin, Moret, O'Conor, Seguin, Serusier, Toulouse-Lautrec.

1895

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Cross, Forbes-Robertson, Lacombe, Luce, Moret, Rousseau, Rysselberghe, Serusier, SignacToulouse-Lautrec.

April-May, Le Barc de Boutteville, 9th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Anquetin, Denis, Forbes-Robertson, Hayet, Moret, Ranson, Serusier.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Liebermann, Puvis de Chavannes,Roll, Simon, W. Stott.

Sept. Le Barc de Boutteville, 10th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Angrand, Anquetin, Forbes-Robertson, Hayet, Maillol, O'Conor, Seguin.

1896

March, Le Barc de Boutteville, 11th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Denis, Lacombe, Maillol, Serusier.

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Munch, Rousseau, Signac, Valtat.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud, Blanche, Boldini, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Liebermann, Matisse, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Simon, W. Stott.

Summer, Le Barc de Boutteville, 12th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Denis, Guillaumin, Roussel.

Nov. Le Barc de Boutteville, 13th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Roussel.

1897

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Munch, Rousseau, SignacToulouse-Lautrec, Valtat.

April onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, Harrison, Helleu, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Matisse, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon, W. Stott, Whistler.

June-July, Le Barc de Boutteville, 14th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes.

Dec. Le Barc de Boutteville, 15th. Exposition des Peintres Impressionistes et Symbolistes, inc.: Toulouse-Lautrec.

1898

April-June, Idependants, inc.: Cross, Luce, Rousseau, Signac.

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Levy-Dhurmer, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Sargent, Simon.

1899

May onwards Societe Nationale, inc.: Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Evenepoel, Guthrie, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Matisse, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon, W. Stott.

Oct.-Nov. Idependants, inc.: Cezanne, Cross, Luce, Signac.

1900

April-Oct. Exposition Universelle. Exposition centennale de i'art francais, 1800-1889,inc.: Bastien-Lepage, Beraud, Besnard, Boudin, Carriere, Cazin, Cezanne, Degas, Fantin-Latour, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Maignan, Manet, Maurin, Monet, Monticelli, Moreau, Morisot, C. Pissarro, Puvis de Chavannes, Raffaëlli, Renoir, Roll, Seurat, Sisley, Vallotton, 

Exposition decennale des Beaux-Arts, 1889-1900, inc.: Adler, Aman-Jean, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, chabes, Cheret, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Guillou, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Levy-Dhurmer, Maignan, Martin, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon. German section inc.: Klackreuth, Liebermann, Slevogt, Von Stuck. Austrian section inc.: Klimt, Kupka. Belgian section inc.: Claus, Ensor, Evenepoel, Khnopff, Vogels. Dutch section inc.:Toorop. American section inc.: Harrison, Sargent, Whistler. British section inc.: Clausen, Stanhope, La Thangue, Lavery, Melville, Osborne, Rothenstein, E. Stott. Italian section inc.: Boldini, Morbelli, Pellizza, Segantini. Swiss section inc.: Amiet, Hodler.

Dec. Idependants, inc.: Luce, Puy, Schuffenecker, Signac.

1901

April-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Boch Anna, Bonnard, Cezanne, Cross, Denis, Ensor, Lacombe, Luce, Matisse, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Sigmac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Blanche, Carriere, Cazin, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Simon

1902

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Bernard, Bonnard, Cezanne, Cross, Denis, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, SignacToulouse-Lautrec (retrospective), Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Harrison, Hodler, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Sickert, Simon, Whistler.

1903

March-May, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Denis, Dufy, Forain, Friesz, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Bonnard, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Le Sidaner, Maillol, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Sickert, Simon, Vallotton.

Oct.-Dec. Salon d'Automne (1st exh.), inc.: Adler, Aman-Jean, Besnard, Blanche, Bonnard, Carriere, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Harrison, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Rouault, Von Stuck, Vallotton, Vuillard.

1904

Feb.-March, Idependants, inc.: Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Signac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Bakst, Beraud, Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Conder, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Rouault, Sargent, Simon, Whistler.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Adler, Bonnard, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Delaunay, Denis, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Lavery, Liebermann, Maillol, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Puvis de Chavannes, Redon, Renoir, Rouault, Roussel, Toulouse-Lautrec, Vallotton, Valtat, Van Dongen, Vuillard, Zandomeneghi.

1905

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bernard, Bonnard, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Van Gogh, Herrmann, Kollwitz, Lacombe, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Serusier, Seurat, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

April, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Besnard, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Guthrie, Harrison, Henry, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Sargent, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bonnard, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Derain, Van Dongen, Duchamp-Villon, Friesz, Guillaumin, Ingres, Jawlensky, Kandinsky, Lavery, Maillol, Manet, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Picabia, l. Pissarro, Raffaëlli, Redon, Renoir, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

1906

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Angrand, Bernard, Bonnard, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Herrmann, Lacombe, Leger, Luce, Marquet, Matisse, Munch, O'Conor, Ranson, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Rysselberghe, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard.

April onwards, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Beraud,Bernard, Besnard, Blanche, Boldini, Carriere, Claus, Cottet, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bonnard, Brancusi, Camoin, Carriere, Cezanne, Delaunay, Derain, Van Dongen, Dufy, Friesz, Gauguin, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Kupka, Lavery, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, O'Conor, Redon, Renoir, Rossi, Rouault, Rousseau, Roussel, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck, Vuillard; plus exh. of Russian art, organized by Diaghilev.

1907

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Delaunay, Derain, Dufy, Gilman, Gore, Herrmann, Kandinsky, Luce, Matisse, O'Conor, Ranson, Rousseau, Roussel, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Signac, Vallotton, Vuillard.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Besnard, Blanche, Claus, Dagnan-Bouveret, Dauchez, Denis, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bakst, Bonnard, Braque, Camoin, Cezanne, Delaunay, Derain, Dufy, Fergusson, Friesz, Guillaumin, Kandinsky, Kupka, Lavery, Leger, Marquet, Matisse, Moret, Redon, Rouault, Rousseau, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vlaminck; plus belgian exh. inc.: Claus, ensor, Evenelopoel, Finch, Khnopff, Mellery, Rops, Rysselberghe.

1908

March-April, Idependants, inc.: Amiet, Angrand, Braque, Camoin, Cross, Derain, Finch, Gilman, Gore, Kandinsky, Luce, Munch, O'Conor, Rousseau, Roussel, Schuffenecker, Serusier, Sickert, Signac, Vallotton, Vlaminck.

April-June, Societe Nationale, inc.: Aman-Jean, Anquetin, Beraud, Bernard, Blanche, Claus, Cottet, Dauchez, Denis, Fergusson, Harrison, La Touche, Lavery, Le Sidaner, Raffaëlli, Roll, Simon.

Oct.-Nov. Salon d'Automne, inc.: Bakst, Bonnard, Camoin, Denis, Derain, Van Dongen, Duchamp, Fergusson, Friesz, El Greco, Kandinsky, Lavery, Leger, Marquet, Matisse, Monticelli, Moret, O'Conor, Ranson, Rouault, Sickert, Vallotton, Valtat, Vuillard, Vlaminck.

Later Exhibitions

29 September 2013 - 6 January 2014 Peggy Guggenheim Collection, THE AVANT-GARDES OF FIN-DE-SIÈCLE PARIS: SIGNAC, BONNARD, REDON, AND THEIR CONTEMPORARIES

16 September 2016 - 8 January 2017 Albertina, Vienna, Seurat, Signac, Van Gogh. Ways of Pointilism.

11 August 2017– 11 March 2018 Kunstmuseum Bern, VAN GOGH TO CÉZANNE, BONNARD TO MATISSE THE COLLECTION HAHNLOSER

   
ARTISTS

 

   
GALLERY
 
  Paul Gauguin, Vision after the Sermon, 1888, National Galleries of Scotland
   
 
  Charles Laval, Going to Market, Brittany, 1888, Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana
   
 
  Emile Bernard, Breton Women in the Meadow, August 1888, Private collection
   
 
  Paul Sérusier, The Talisman (with the forest landscape of love in Pont-Aven) , 1888, Musée d'Orsay
   
   
BIBLIOGRAPHY  
 
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